Mount Baldo is composed prevalently of carbonate sedimentary rocks formed by marine organisms. These rocks were uplifted as a result of pressure exerted by tectonic forces from two opposite directions: the Pre-Alps of Brescia on one side, the block of the Lessinia Mounts on the other.
Triassic (200 million to 240 million years ago)
– Main Dolomite – consisting of alternate layers of calcium-magnesium carbonate and algal mats (stromatolites).
Jurassic (135 million to 200 million years ago)
– Calcari Grigi di Noriglio Formations: these rocks are gray due to the presence of organic matter deposited in shallow water.
– San Vigilio Oolitic Limestone; light hazel, consisting in spherical grains of calcite (oolites) that formed as a result of the movement of tidal currents.
– Red Verona Marble: this limestone rich in macrofossils (ammonites) bears witness to the sinking of the ocean floor in the period of formation.
Cretaceus (65 million to 135 million years ago)
– Biancone: ivory white limestone thickly laminated with layers of flint, formed from sediments of great depth (over a 1000 meters).
– Scaglia Rossa: thickly laminated limestone, is reddish due to the presence of clay containing iron oxides.
Eocene (25 million to 65 million years ago)
– Torbole Limestone and Malcesine Limestone – fossiliferous limestone very rich in remains of marine organisms (nummulites, corals and echinoderms).
– Lavas and tuffs – produced by localized volcanic phenomena.
– Nago and Monte delle Erbe Limestone – these rocks result from a further deposition of calcareous sediments on surfaces already covered by tuffs and basaltic lavas.
Oligocene (less than 25 million years ago)
– Acquenere rock formations: can be considered as the last deposition on Mount Baldo of marine carbonate-rich detrital sediments.