Those who practice mountain sports must take into account both the risks specific to the chosen sport and those related to the environment where that particular sport is undertaken.  So one needs to pay particular attention to:


Specific shoes

with a thick sole to reduce the risk of falls, slips and trauma.

Layered clothing

made up of at least three layers, including a breathable and waterproof jacket that adapts to weather and temperature changes.

Head covered

with a breathable and ventilated hat to reduce the risk of heat or cold related stress.

Water supply

(half liter per hour of activity); food supply (fruit, carbohydrates and chocolate).


Creams (UV ray protection).


You should always know where you are located, where you are going, how to get back and alternative routes; if you do not have a good map, or do not know how to use it, it is better not to leave the beaten track and marked trails.  Do not hesitate to retrace your steps if you feel you are losing your sense of orientation.


Cold: harm caused by cold exposure (hypo-thermia and frostbite) is more likely in the following conditions: little or no isolation, sweat soaked clothing, wet clothes from rain, small body mass (children), poor training, fatigue.

Wind: wind strongly accelerates the body’s cooling process, makes movements tougher, hinders breathing, makes the excursion harder, can create psychological distress and decreased attention.

Fog: when fog descends onto a snowy slope, it causes disorientation and cancels any kind of signal.  On surfaces that are not covered by snow, fog makes rocks damp and slippery and can freeze on the ground, even causing indirect hazards.

Storms: storms are caused by a particular kind of clouds (cumulonimbus) that grow vertically quite quickly, one must know and be able to recognize them; the greatest risk is associated to lightning, so you should avoid stopping under isolated trees or standing in open spaces (especially on ridges).